Abstract:

EDITED BY:

JAMES A. LANE / Oak Ridge National Laboratory

H.G. MACPHERSON / Oak Ridge National Laboratory

FRANK MASLAN / Brookhaven National Laboratory

 

  1. Homogeneous Reactors and Their Development
  2. Nuclear Characteristics of One- and Two-Region Homogeneous Reactors
  3. Properties of Aqueous Fuel Solutions
  4. Technology of Aqueous Suspensions
  5. Integrity of Metals in Homogeneous Reactor Media
  6. Chemical Processing
  7. Design and Construction of Experimental Homogenous Reactors
  8. Component Development
  9. Large-Scale Homogeneous Reactor Studies
  10. Homogeneous Reactor Cost Studies
  11. Introduction
  12. Chemical Aspects of Molten-Fluoride-Salt Reactor Fuels
  13. Construction Materials for Molten-Salt Reactors
  14. Nuclear Aspects of Molten-Salt Reactors
  15. Equipment for Molten-Salt Reactor Heat-Transfer Systems
  16. Aircraft Reactor Experiment
  17. Conceptual Design of a Power Reactor
  18. 18. Liquid-Metal Fuel Reactors
  19. Reactor Physics for Liquid-Metal Reactor Design
  20. Composition and Properties of Liquid-Metal Fuels
  21. Materials of Construction-Metallurgy
  22. Chemical Processing
  23. Engineering Design
  24. Liquid-Metal Fuel Reactor Design Study
  25. Additional Liquid-Metal Reactors

AUTHORS

  • E. G. BOHLMANN
  • P.R. KASTEN
  • J. A. LANE
  • J. P. McBRIDE
  • D. G. THOMAS
  • H. F. McDuffie
  • R. A. McNEES
  • C. L. SEGASER
  • I. SPIEWAK

CONTRIBUTORS

  • B. M. ADAMSON
  • S. E. BEALL
  • W. E. BROWNlNG
  • W. D. BURCH
  • R. D. CHEVERTON
  • E. L. COMPERE
  • C. H. GABBARD
  • J. C. GRIESS
  • D. B. HALL
  • E. C. HISE
  • G. H. JENKS
  • J. C. WILSON
  • S. I. KAPLAN
  • N. A. KROHN
  • C. G. LAWSON
  • R. E. LEUZE
  • R. N. LYON
  • W. T. MCDUFFEE
  • L. E. MORSE
  • S. PETERSON
  • R. C. ROBERTSON
  • H. C. SAVAGE
  • D.S.TOOMB
  • L. G. ALEXANDER
  • H. G. MACPHERSON
  • J. W. ALLEN
  • W. D. MANLY
  • E. S. BETTIS
  • L.A. MANN
  • F. F. BLANKENSHIP
  • W. B. F. BOUDREAU
  • H.J. METZE.
  • J. BREEDING
  • P. G. COBB
  • H.F. POPPENDIE
  • KW. H. CooK
  • J. T. ROBERTS
  • D.R. CUNEO
  • M. T. ROBINSON
  • J. H. DEVANN
  • T. K. ROCHED.
  • A. DOUGLAS
  • H. W. SAVAGE
  • W. K. ERGEN
  • G. M. SLAUGHTER
  • W.R. GRIMES
  • E. STORTOH. INOUYE
  • A. TABOADA
  • D. H. JANSEN
  • G. M. TOLSON
  • G. W. KEILHOLTZ
  • F. C. VONDERLAGE
  • B. W. KINYON
  • G. D. WHITMAN
  • M. E. LACKEY
  • J. ZASLER

Introduction to Part 1

 The customary approach to reactor development assumes that a reactor is primarily a mechanical engineering device-that the ultimate goal of economically competitive nuclear power will be achieved by simplifying the mechanical design and by making the fuel elements more reliable. The other, basically different, view of reactor technology holds that reactors are chemical plants-that the methods which have proved so useful in rationalizing the chemical industry, i.e., the continuous handling of materials in liquid form, should lead to ultimate economies in reactor plants. This “chemical” approach to reactors has been pursued vigorously in the United States for almost a decade; it is summarized in this volume on fluid fuel reactors.

The basic simplicity of the liquid reactor-the original idea of “a pot, pump, and pipe”-has hardly persisted throughout the years. Those who have actually built and operated high-temperature, high-powered liquid reactors have become impressed with their difficulty-the difficulty primarily of handling vast amounts of radioactivity in labile form. It seems now that liquid reactor systems, when reduced to practice, are in many ways more complicated than their solid competitors; at least their complications (being in the plumbing system) are much more obtrusive than the complications of a solid fuel reactor, which lie out of sight in the core.

Yet in spite of their difficulties, the two underlying motivations for liquid and other fluid systems remain: their fuel cycle is simpler and their neutron economy is better than for solid-fueled reactors. Thus there continues to be strong incentive to develop these systems. It  is the belief of fluid fuel enthusiasts that in the very long run the simplification in fuel cycle and, more important, the better neutron economy made possible by the use of fluid fuels will outweigh the difficult handling problems and ultimately weight the balance of reactor development toward these systems.

The present volume contains a summary of the work done in the United States on fluid fuel reactors. The first part deals with the aqueous homogeneous reactor; most of this work has been done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with some phases of the work (on slurries) at Westinghouse Atomic Power Division and some work on phosphate solutions at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The second part deals with the fused salt system, which has been investigated primarily at the Oak Ridge Laboratory; the third part deals with the bismuth-uranium system, investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

It is my hope that the results described here will be helpful to all who are interested in fluid fuel systems, and that, by disseminating this information, new ideas and new approaches will be generated to help solve the remaining problems of fluid fuel reactors.

Oak Ridge, Tenn.

June 1958

A. M. Weinberg, Director

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

 

INTRODUCTION TO PART 2

The potential utility of a fluid-fueled reactor that can operate at a high temperature but with a low-pressure system has been recognized for a long time. Some years ago, R. C. Briant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory suggested the use of the molten mixture of UF 4 and ThF 4, together with the fluorides of the alkali metals and beryllium or zirconium, as the fluid fuel. Laboratory work with such mixtures led to the operation, in 1954, of an experimental reactor, which was designated the Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE).

Fluoride-salt mixtures suitable for use in power reactors have melting points in the temperature range 850 to 950°F and are sufficiently compatible with certain nickel-base alloys to assure long life for reactor components at temperatures up to 1300°F. Thus the natural, optimum operating temperature for a molten-salt-fueled reactor is such that the molten salt is a suitable heat source for a modern steam power plant. The principal advantages of the molten-salt system, other than high temperature, in comparison with one or more of the other fluid-fuel systems are (1) lowpressure operation, (2) stability of the liquid under radiation, (3) high solubility of uranium and thorium (as fluorides) in molten-salt mixtures, and (4) resistance to corrosion of the structural materials that does not depend on oxide or other film formation.

The molten-salt system has the usual benefits attributed to fluid-fuel systems. The principal advantages over solid-fuel-element systems are (1) a high negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, (2) a lack of radiation damage that can limit fuel burnup, (3) the possibility of continuous fission-product removal, (4) the avoidance of the expense of fabricating new fuel elements, and (5) the possibility of adding makeup fuel as needed, which precludes the need for providing excess reactivity. The high negative temperature coefficient and the lack of excess reactivity make possible a reactor, without control rods, which automatically adjusts its power in response to changes of the electrical load. The lack of excess reactivity also leads to a reactor that is not endangered by nuclear power excursions.

One of the attractive features of the molten-salt system is the variety of reactor types that can be considered to cover a range of applications. The present state of the technology suggests that homogeneous reactors which use a molten salt composed of BeF 2 and either Li7F or N aF, with UF 4 for fuel and ThF4 for a fertile material, are most suitable for early construction.

These reactors can be either one or two region and, depending on the size of the reactor core and the thorium fluoride concentration, can cover a wide range of fuel inventories, breeding ratios, and fuel reprocessing schedules. The chief virtues of this class of molten-salt reactor are that the design is based on a well-developed technology and that the use of a simple fuel cycle contributes to reduced costs.

With further development, the same base salt, that is, the mixture of BeF2 and Li7 F, can be combined with a graphite moderator in a heterogeneous arrangement to provide a self-contained Th-U233 system with a breeding ratio of one. The chief advantage of the molten-salt system over other liquid systems in pursuing this objective is that it is the only system in which a soluble thorium compound can be used, and thus the problem of slurry handling is avoided. The possibility of placing thorium in the core obviates the necessity of using graphite as a core-shell material.

Plutonium is being investigated as an alternate fuel for the molten-salt reactor. Although it is too early to describe a plutonium-fueled reactor in detail, it is highly probable that a suitable PuF3-fueled reactor can be constructed and operated.

The high melting temperature of the fluoride salts is the principal difficulty in their use. Steps must be taken to preheat equipment and to keep the equipment above the melting point of the salt at all times. In  addition, there is more parasitic neutron capture in the salts of the molten-salt reactor than there is in the heavy water of the heavy-water-moderated reactors, and thus the breeding ratios are lower. The poorer moderating ability of the salts requires larger critical masses for molten-salt reactors than for the aqueous systems. Finally, the molten-salt reactor shares with all fluid-fuel reactors the problems of certain containment of the fuel, the reliability of components, and the necessity for techniques of making repairs remotely. The low pressure of the molten-salt fuel system should be beneficial with regard to these engineering problems, but to evaluate them properly will require operating experience with experimental reactors.

 

Preface to Part 1

 

PREFACE

This compilation of information related to aqueous homogeneous reactors summarizes the results of more than ten years of research and development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and other organizations. Some 1500 technical man-years of effort have been devoted to this work, the cost of which totals more than $50 million. A summary of a program of this magnitude must necessarily be devoted primarily to the main technical approaches pursued, with less attention to alternate approaches. For more complete coverage, the reader is directed to the selected bibliography at the end of Part I.

Although research in other countries has contributed to the technology of aqueous homogeneous reactors, this review is limited to work in the United States. In a few instances, however, data and references pertaining to work carried on outside the United States are included for continuity.

Responsibility for the preparation of Part I was shared by the members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as given on the preceding page and at the beginning of each chapter.

Review of the manuscript by others of the Oak Ridge Laboratory staff and by scientists and engineers of Argonne National Laboratory and Westinghouse Electric Corporation have improved clarity and accuracy. Suggestions by R B. Briggs, director of the Homogeneous Reactor Project at the Oak Ridge Laboratory, and S. McLain, consultant to the Argonne Laboratory, were particularly helpful.

Others at Oak Hidge who assisted in the preparation of this part include W. D. Reel, who checked all chapters for style and consistency, W. C. Colwell, who was in charge of the execution of the drawings, and H. B. Whetsel, who prepared the subject index.

Oak Ridge, Tennessee

James A. Lane,

Editor .June 1958

 

Preface to Part 2

 

PREFACE

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, has engaged in research on molten salts as materials for use in high-temperature reactors for a number of years. The technology developed by this work was incorporated in the Aircraft Reactor Experiment and made available for purposes of civilian application. This earlier technology and the new·information found in the civilian power reactor effort is summarized in this part. So many present and former members of the Laboratory staff have contributed directly or indirectly to the molten salt work that it should be regarded as a contribution from the entire Laboratory. The technical direction of the work was provided by A. M. Weinberg, R. C. Briant, W. H. Jordan, and S. J. Cromer. In addition to the contributors listed for the various chapters, the editor would like to acknowledge the efforts of the following people who are currently engaged in the work reported: R. G. Affel, J. C. Amos, C. J. Barton, C. C. Beusman, W. E. Browning, S. Cantor, D. 0. Campbell, G. I.  Cathers, B. H. Clampitt, J. A. Conlin, M. H. Cooper, J. L. Crowley, J. Y. Estabrook, H. A. Friedman, P. A. Gnadt, A. G. Grindell, H. W. Hoffman, H. Insley, S. Langer, R. E. MacPherson, R. E. Moore, G. J. Nessle, R. F. Newton, W.R. Osborn, F. E. Romie, C. F. Sales, J. H. Shaffer, G. P. Smith, N. V. Smith, P. G. Smith, W. L. Snapp, W. K. Stair, R. A. Strehlow, C. D. Susano, R. E.  Thoma, D. B. Trauger, J. J. Tudor, W. T. Ward, G. M. Watson, J. C. White, andH. C. Young.

The technical reviews at Argonne National Laboratory and Westinghouse Electric Corporation aided in achieving clarity. The editor and contributors of this part wish to express their appreciation to A. W. Savolainen for her assistance in preparing the text in its final form.

Oak Ridge, Tennessee

June 1958

H. G. MacPherson, Editor

 

Preface to Part 3

 

PREFACE

This is the most extensive discussion of liquid-metal fuel reactor development yet published in the United States. Emphasis has been placed on the Liquid Metal Fuel Reactor being developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Babcock &  Wilcox Co. because it is the most advanced project. Work on various phases of liquid-metal fuel reactors is being carried out by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Raytheon Manufacturing Co., Argonne National Laboratory, Ames Laboratory, and Atomics International. The editor would like to have given more coverage to work at the last three locations but was unable to because time was lacking.

The liquid-metal fuel reactor development at Brookhaven started as an organized program in 1951. Before that, work had been conducted on bismuth-uranium fuel and other components. In 1954, Babcock &  Wilcox Co.’, in collaboration with representatives of sixteen other companies, prepared a reference design and report. In 1956, Babcock &  Wilcox contracted with the Atomic Energy Commission to design, build, and operate a low-power experimental reactor (LMFR Experiment No. 1). Research, development, and design studies are being carried on concurrently by B &  Wand Brookhaven. LMFR Experiment No. 1, on which construction is scheduled to start in 1960, is intended to demonstrate feasibility and provide information on the physics, metallurgy, chemistry, and mechanical aspects of this type of reactor.

The editor expresses appreciation to many of his colleagues at Brookhaven and Babcock &  Wilcox for working with him on these chapters. He wishes particularly to thank those whose material he drew upon, also C. Williams, 0. E.  Dwyer, D. Gurinsky, H. Kouts, F. T. Miles, and T. V. Sheehan, of Brookhaven National Laboratory; R. T. Schoemer, H. H. Poor, and J. Happell, of Babcock &  Wilcox Co.; R. Rebholz and G. Goring, of Union Carbide Corp.; D. Hall, of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; and W. Robba, of Raytheon Manufacturing Co. Special appreciation is due Miss Gloria Ministeri for her laborious and prolonged secretarial work and Miss Dolores Del Castillo for coming to our aid in emergencies.

Upton, New York

June 1958

Frank Maslan, Editor

 

 

CONTENTS

PART I. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORS

CHAPTER 1. HOMOGENEOUS REACTORS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT . 1

1-1. Background 1

1-1.1 Work prior to the Manhattan Project 1

1-1.2 Early homogeneous reactor development programs at Columbia and Chicago universities 2

1-1.3 The first homogeneous reactors and the Los Alamos program . 4

1-1.4 Early homogeneous reactor development at Clinton Laboratories (now Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 6

1-1.5 The homogeneous reactor program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory 7

1-1.6 Industrial participation in homogeneous reactor development 9

1-2. General Characteristics of Homogeneous Reactors 11

1-2.1 Types of systems and their applications . 11

1-2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of aqueous fuel systems 13

1-3. U235 Burner Reactors 17

1-3.1 Dilute solution systems and their applications 17

1-3.2 High-temperature systems 17

1-4. Converter Reactors 18

1-4.1 Purpose of converters 18

1-4.2 One-region converters 18

1-4.3 Two-region converters 19

1-5. Breeder Reactors . 19

1-5.1 The importance of breeding 19

1-5.2 One-region thorium breeders 20

1-5.3 Two-region breeder reactors 20

1-6. Miscellaneous Homogeneous Types . 21

1-6.1 Boiling reactors . 21

1-6.2 Gaseous homogeneous reactors. 23

1-6.3 Fluidized systems 24

CHAPTER 2. NUCLEAR CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE- AND Two-REGION Ho- MOGENEOUS REACTORS 29

2-1. Criticality Calculations 29

2-1.1 Calculation methods 30

2-1.2 Results obtained for one-region reactors 33

2-1.3 Results obtained for two-region reactors 36

2-2. Nuclear Constants Used in Criticality Calculations  39

2-2.1 Nuclear data . 41

2-2.2 Resonance integrals . 43

2-3. Fuel Concentrations and Breeding Ratios under Initial and Steady-State Conditions . 43

2-3.1 Two-region reactors . 44

2-3.2 Two-region thorium breeder reactors evaluated under initial conditions 44

2-3.3 Nuclear characteristics of two-region thorium breeder reactors under equilibrium conditions 50

2-3.4 Equilibrium results for two-region uranium-plutonium reactors 56

2-3.5 One-region reactors . 57

2-3.6 Equilibrium results for one-region thorium breeder reactors. 58

2-3.7 Equilibrium results for one-region uranium-plutonium reactors 59

2-4. Unsteady-State Fuel Concentrations and Breeding Ratios 59

2-4.1 Two-region reactors . 59

2-4.2 One-region reactors . 66

2-5. Safety and Stability of Homogeneous Reactors Following Reactivity Additions 67

2-5. l Homogeneous reactor safety 67

2-5.2 Homogeneous reactor stability 77

CHAPTER 3. PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS FUEL SOLUTIONS . 85

3-1. Introduction 85

3-2. Solubility Relationships of Fissile and Fertile Materials 85

3-2.1 General 85

3-2.2 Uranyl sulfate 87

3-2.3 Other uranium compounds . 93

3-2.4 Solubilities of nonuranium compounds 98

3-3. Radiation Effects 101

3-3.1 Introduction . 101

3-3.2 Primary and secondary reactions in pure water . 102

3-3.3 Decomposition of water in uranium solutions 104

3-3.4 Recombination in uranium solutions 107

3-3.5 Peroxide decomposition in uranium solutions 108

3-3.6 Decomposition of water in thorium solutions 111

3-4. Physical Properties 111

3-4.1 Introduction . 111

3-4.2 Density of heavy water and uranyl sulfate solutions 113

3-4.3 Viscosity of DzO and uranium solutions . 114

3-4.4 Heat capacity of uranyl sulfate solutions 115

3-4.5 Vapor pressure of uranyl sulfate solutions 115

3-4.6 Surface tension of uranyl sulfate solutions 116

3-4.7 Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) . 119

3-4.8 Solubility of gases 120

3-4.9 Reaction limits and pressures 120

CHAPTER 4. TECHNOLOGY OF AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS 128

4-1. · Suspensions and Their Applications in. Reactors 128

4-1.1 Introduction . 128

4-1.2 Types of suspensions and their settled beds . 129

4-1.3 Engineering problems associated with colloidal properties. 130

4-1.4 Engineering problems not associated with colloidal properties. 132

4-1.5 Systems and components for using slurries in reactors 134

4-2. Uranium Oxide Slurries 135

4-2.1 Introduction . 135

4-2.2 Chemical stability of uranium oxides . 135

4-2.3 Crystal chemistry of UO3 . 136

4-2.4 UO3·H20 slurry characteristics 139

4-2.5 Zero-power reactor tests 139

4-3. Preparation and Characterization of Thorium Oxide and Its Aqueous Suspensions . 139

4-3.1 Selected properties of thorium oxide . 139

4-3.2 Preparation of thorium oxide . 140

4-3.3 Large-scale preparation of thorium oxide 141

4-3.4 Characterization of thorium oxide products 143

4-3.5 Sedimentation characteristics of thorium oxide slurries. 149

4-3.6 Status of laboratory development of thorium oxide slurries 158

4-4. Engineering Properties 158

4-4.1 Introduction . 158

4-4.2 Physical properties 160

4-4.3 Fluid flow. 168

4-4.4 Hindered-settling systematics 171

4-4.5 Heat transfer 173

4-5. Operating Experience with the HRE-2 Slurry Blanket TestFacility . 176

4-5.1 Introduction . 176

4-5.2 Operation of blanket pressure vessel mockup system . 177

4-6. Radiation Stability of Thorium Oxide Slurries. 179

4-6.1 Introduction . 179

4-6.2 Experimental technique. 180

4-6.3 Irradiation results 181

4-7. Catalytic Recombination of Radiolytic Gases in Aqueous ThoriumOxide Slurries 183

4-7.1 Introduction . 183

4-7.2 Experimental techniques and method of analysis 184

4-7.3 Catalytic activity of thorium and thorium-uranium oxide slurries . 185

4-7.4 Survey of possible catalysts 185

4-7.5 Molybdenum oxide as a catalyst 186

4-7.6 In-pile studies 188

CHAPTER 5. INTEGRITY OF METALS IN HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR MEDIA 198

5–1. Introduction 198

5-2. Experimental Equipment for Determining Corrosion Rates 199

5–2.1 Out-of-pile equipment 199

5–2.2 In-pile equipment 205

5-3. Survey of Materials 211

5-3.1 Introduction . 211

5-3.2 Corrosion tests in uranyl carbonate solutions 211

5-3.3 Corrosion tests in uranyl fluoride solutions 213

5–3.4 Corrosion tests in uranyl sulfate solutions 215

5-3.5 Conclusions . 218

5-4. Corrosion of Type-347 Stainless Steel in Uranyl Sulfate Solutions 219

5–4.1 Introduction . 219

5–4.2 Effect of temperature 219

5-4.3 Effect of solution flow rate . 220

5-4.4 Effect of uranyl sulfate and sulfuric acid concentration 222

5–4.5 Temperature dependence of flow effects . 223

5-4.6 Effect of corrosion inhibitors 224

5-4.7 Qualitative mechanism of the corrosion of stainless steel in uranyl sulfate solutions . 226

5–4.8 Radiation effects 229

5-5. Radiation-Induced Corrosion of Zircaloy-2 and Zirconium 232

5–5.1 Introduction . 232

5-5.2 Corrosion of Zircaloy-2 and zirconium in uranyl sulfate solutions in the absence of radiation . 233

5-5.3 Methods and procedures employed with in-pile tests 234

5-5.4 Results of in-pile tests with Zircaloy-2 and zirconium 237

5-5.5 Tests of the effect of fast-electron irradiation on Zircaloy-2 corrosion . 242

5-5.6 Discussion of results of radiation corrosion experiments. 242

5-6. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium and Titanium Alloys in Uranyl Sulfate Solutions . 245

5-6.1 Introduction . 245

5–6.2 Corrosion of titanium and titanium alloys in uranyl sulfate solutions in the absence of radiation . 246

5–6.3 Corrosion of titanium and titanium alloys in uranyl sulfate solution under irradiation 246

5-7. Aqueous Slurry Corrosion 248

5-7.1 Nature of attack 248

5-7.2 Slurry materials . 254

5–7.3 Effect of slurry characteristics . 256

5-7.4 Effect of operation conditions 260

5-7.5 Radiation 262

5-8. Homogeneous Reactor Metallurgy . 262

5-8.1 Introduction . 262

5-8.2 Fabrication and morphology of Zircaloy-2 263

5-8.3 Mechanical properties of zirconium and titanium 266

5-8.4 Welding of titanium and zirconium 271

5-8.5 Combustion of zirconium and titanium 275

5-8.6 Development of new zirconium alloys 276

5-8.7 Inspection of metals by nondestructive testing methods 278

5-8.8 Radiation effects in pressure vessel steels. 279

5-9. Stress-Corrosion Cracking 283

5-9.1 Introduction . 283

5-9.2 Fuel systems . 284

5-9.3 Slurry systems 289

5-9.4 Secondary systems 289

CHAPTER 6. CHEMICAL PROCESSING 301

6-1. Introduction 301

6-2. Core Processing: Solids Removal 304

6-2.1 Introduction . 304

6-2.2 Chemistry of insoluble fission and corrosion products 304

6-2.3 Experimental study of hydroclone performance . 306

6-2.4 HRE-2 chemical processing plant 309

6-3. Fission Product Gas Disposal 312

6-3.1 Introduction . 312

6-3.2 Experimental study of adsorption of fission product gases . 313

6-3.3 Design of a fission product gas adsorber system 316

6-3.4 HRE-2 fission product gas adsorber system .316

6-4. Core Processing: Solubles 317

6-4.1 Introduction . 317

6-4.2 Solvent extraction 318

6-4.3 Uranyl peroxide precipitation 318

6-5. Core Processing: Iodine 319

6-5.1 Introduction . 319

6-5.2 The chemistry of iodine in aqueous solutions 320

6-5.3 Removal of iodine from aqueous homogeneous reactors 323

6-6. Uranyl Sulfate Blanket Processing . 326

6-6.1 Introduction . 326

6-6.2 Plutonium chemistry in uranyl sulfate solution 326

6-6.3 Neptunium chemistry in uranyl sulfate solution. 327

6-6.4 Plutonium behavior under simulated reactor conditions 328

6-6.5 Alternate process methods 330

6-7. Thorium Oxide Blanket Processing 332

6-7.1 Introduction . 332

6-7.2 Thorex process 332

6-7.3 Alternate processing method 335

CHAPTER 7. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL HOMOGENEOUS REACTORS 340

7-1. Introduction 340

7-1.1 Need for reactor construction experience . 340

7-1.2 Sequence of experimental reactors 341

7-2. Water Boilers 341

7-2.1 Description of the LOPO, HYPO, and SUPO 341

7-2.2 Kinetic experiments in water boilers 345

7-2.3 The North Carolina State College research reactor . 346

7-2.4 Atomics International solution-type research reactors 347

7-3. The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE-1). 348

7-3.1 Introduction . 348

7-3.2 The reactor fuel system 349

7-3.3 The reflector system. 350

7-3.4 The fuel off-gas system . 352

7-3.5 Fuel concentration control . 353

7-3.6 Power removal 354

7-3.7 Internal-recombination experiments 355

7-3.8 Nuclear safety 355

7-3.9 Leak prevention . 356

7-3.10 Shielding . 357

7-3.11 Construction cost 357

7-3.12 Maintenance . 357

7-3.13 Dismantling the HRE-1 358

7-3.14 Critique of HRE-1 358

7-3.15 Summary of results . 359

7-4. The Homogeneous Reactor Test (HRE-2) . 359

7-4.1 Objectives 359

7-4.2 Reactor specifications and description 359

7–4.3 Schedule of construction 369

7-4.4 Nonnuclear testing and operation . 371

7–4.5 Nuclear operation 375

7-4.6 Operational techniques and special procedures 376

7-4.7 The HRE-2 mockup 380

7–4.8 The HRE-2 instrument and control system . 381

7-4.9 Remote maintenance 387

7–4.10 Containment methods 391

7-4.11 Summary of HRE-2 design and construction experience 395

7-4.12 HRE-2 construction costs . 397

7-5. The Los Alamos Power Reactor Experiments (LAPRE-1 and 2) 397

7-5.1 Introduction . 397

7-5.2 Description of LAPRE-1 400

7-5.3 Operation of LAPRE-1 403

7-5.4 Description of LAPRE-2 404

CHAPTER 8. COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT 408

8-1. Introduction 408

8-2. Primary-System Components 409

8-2.1 Core and blanket vessel designs 409

8-2.2 Circulating pumps 413

8-2.3 Steam generators 419

8-2.4 Pressurizers 423

8-2.5 Piping and welded joints 428

8-2.6 Flange closures . 429

8-2.7 Gas separators 432

8-3. Supporting-System Components 434

8-3.1 Storage tanks 434

8-3.2 Entrainment separator 436

8-3.3 Recombiners 436

8-3.4 Condenser 439

8-3.5 Cold traps 439

8-3.6 Charcoal adsorbers 440

8-3.7 Feed pumps . 441

8-3.8 Valves 445

8-3.9 Sampling equipment 448

8-3.10 Letdown heat exchanger 450

8-3:11 Freeze plugs .451

8-4. Auxiliary Components 452

8-4.1 Refrigeration system 452

8-4.2 Oxygen injection equipment 452

8-5. Instrument Components .454

8-5.1 Signal transmission systems 454

8-5.2 Primary variable sensing elements 455

8-5.3 Nuclear instrumentation in the HRE-2 459

8-5.4 Electrical wiring and accessories .460

CHAPTER 9. LARGE-SCALE HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR STUDIES 466

9-1. Introduction 466

9-1.1 The status of large-scale technology 466

9-1.2 Summary of design studies .467

9-2. General Plant Layout and Design . 468

9-2.1 Relation of plant layout to remote-maintenance methods 468

9-2.2 Importance of specifications 469

9–2.3 Approach to an optimum piping system . 469

9-2.4 Shielding problems in a large-scale plant 470

9-2.5 Containment . 471

9-2.6 Steam power cycles for homogeneous reactors 471

9-3. One-Region U235 Burner Reactors . 473

9-3.1 Foster-Wheeler Wolverine Design Study. 473

9-3.2 Aqueous Homogeneous Research Reactor-feasibility study . 479

9-3.3 The Advanced Engineering Test Reactor 486

9-4. One-Region Breeders and Converters . . 487

9-4.1 The Pennsylvania Advanced Reactor U233-thorium oxide reference design 487

9-4.2 Large-scale aqueous plutonium-power reactors . 493

9–4.3 Oak Ridge National Laboratory one-region power reactor studies . 495

9-5. Two-Region Breeders . 496

9–5.1 Nuclear Power Group aqueous homogeneous reactor 496

9-5.2 Single-fluid two-region aqueous homogeneous reactor power plant 499

9-5.3 Oak Ridge National Laboratory two-region reactor studies 504

CHAPTER 10. HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR CosT STUDIES 514

10-1. Introduction 514

10-1.1 Relation between cost studies and reactor design factors 514

10-1.2 Parametric cost studies at ORNL 515

10-2. Bases for Cost Calculations . . . 516

10-2.1 Fuel costs 516

10-2.2 Investment, operating, and maintenance costs 521

10-3. Effect of Design Variables on the Fuel Costs in THO2-UO3-D2O Systems . 521

10-3.1 Introduction . 521

10-3.2 Two-region spherical reactors 523

10-3.3 One-region spherical reactors 527

10-3.4 Cylindrical reactors . 529

10-4. Effect of Design Variables on Fuel Costs in Uranium-Plutonium Systems . 530

10-4.1 One-region Pu02-UOa-D20 power reactors . 530

10-4.2 One-region UO2SO4-Li2SO4-D20 power reactors 532

10-4.3 Two-region UOa-Pu02-D20 power reactors . 535

10-5. Fuel Costs in Dual-Purpose Plutonium Power Reactors 537

10-5.1 One-region reactors . 538

10-5.2 Two-region reactors . 539

10-6. Fuel Costs in U235 Burner Reactors 539

10-7. Summary of Homogeneous Reactor Fuel-Cost Calculations . 542

10-7.1 Equilibrium operating conditions . 542

10-7.2 Nonsteady-state operating conditions 542

10-8. Capital Costs for Large-Scale Plants 545

10-9. Operating and Maintenance Costs in Large-Scale Plants 549

10-10. Summary of Estimated Power Costs 552

Bibliography, Part I. 557

PART II. MOLTEN-SALT REACTORS

CHAPTER 11. INTRODUCTION 567

CHAPTER 12. CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF MOLTEN-FLUORIDE-SALT REACTOR FUELS . 569

12-1. Choice of Base or Solvent Salts .569

12-2. Fuel and Blanket Solutions .577

12-2.1 Choice of uranium fluoride .577

12-2.2 Combination of UF 4 with base salts 578

12-2.3 Systems containing thorium fluoride 580

12-2.4 Systems containing Th4 and UF 4 . 580

12-2.5 Systems containing PuF3 581

12-3. Physical and Thermal Properties of Fluoride Mixtures 581

12-4. Production and Purification of Fluoride Mixtures 584

12-4.1 Purification equipment .584

12-4.2 Purification processing .585

12-5. Radiation Stability of Fluoride Mixtures 586

12-6. Behavior of Fission Products. 588

12-6.1 Fission products of well-defined valence 589

12-6.2 Fission products of uncertain valence 590

12-6.3 Oxidizing nature of the fission process 591

12-7. Fuel Reprocessing . 591

CHAPTER 13. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR MOLTEN-SALT REACTORS 595

13-1. Survey of Suitable Materials 595

13-2. Corrosion of Nickel-Base Alloys by Molten Salts 598

13-2.1 Apparatus used for corrosion tests 598

13-2.2 Mechanism of corrosion.598

13-3. Fabrication of INOR-8 604

13-3.1 Casting 604

13-3.2 Hot forging .604

13-3.3 Cold-forming .604

13-3.4 Welding .605

13-3.5 Brazing 608

13-3.6 Nondestructive testing 610

13-4. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of INOR-8 611

13-4.1 Elasticity . 611

13-4.2 Plasticity . .611

13-4.3 Aging characteristics 616

13-4.4 Thermal conductivity and coefficient of linear thermal expansion. 618

13-5. Oxidation Resistance .619

13-6. Fabrication of a Duplex Tubing Heat Exchanger .620

13-7. Availability of INOR-8 623

13-8. Compatibility of Graphite with Molten Salts and Nickel-Base Alloys 623

13-9. Materials for Valve Seats and Bearing Surfaces 625

13-10. Summary of Material Problems .625

CHAPTER 14. NUCLEAR ASPECTS OF MOLTEN-SALT REACTORS 626

14-1. Homogeneous Reactors Fueled with U235 628

14-1.1 Initial states .628

14-1.2 Intermediate states .644

14-2. Homogeneous Reactors Fueled with U233 646

14-2.1 Initial states . 650

14-2.2 Intermediate states . 650

14-3. Homogeneous Reactors Fueled with Plutonium 656

14-3.1 Initial states . 656

14-3.2 Intermediate states . 656

14-4. Heterogeneous Graphite-Moderated Reactors 657

14-4.1 Initial states . 659

CHAPTER 15. EQUIPMENT FOR MOLTEN-SALT REACTOR HEAT-TRANSFER SYSTEMS 661

15-1. Pumps for Molten Salts . 662

15-1.1 Improvements desired for power reactor fuel pump 664

15-1.2 A proposed fuel pump . 665

15-2. Heat Exchangers, Expansion Tanks, and Drain Tanks 667

15-3. Valves . 667

15-4. System Heating 668

15-5. Joints 669

15-6. Instruments 671

15-6.1 Flow measurements . 671

15-6.2 Pressure measurements . 672

15-6.3 Temperature measurements 672

15-6.4 Liquid-level measurements . 672

15-6.5 Nuclear sensors . 672

CHAPTER 16. AIRCRAFT REACTOR EXPERIMENT 673

CHAPTER 17. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF A POWER REACTOR 681

17-1. Fuel and Blanket Systems 681

17-1.1 Reactor vessel 681

17-1.2 Fuel pump 682

17-1.3 System for removal of fission-product gases 682

17-2. Heat-Transfer Circuits and Turbine Generator 687

17-3. Remote Maintenance Provisions. 688

17-4. Molten-Salt Transfer Equipment691

17-5. Fuel Drain Tank .693

17-6. Chemical Reprocessing Method 693

17-7. Cost Estimates 694

Bibliography, Part II 697

PART III. LIQUID-METAL FUEL REACTORS

CHAPTER 18. LIQUID-METAL FUEL REACTORS. 703

18-1. Background 703

18-1.1 Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory 703

18-1.2 Work of study groups . 704

18-2. General Characteristics of Liquid Metal Fuel Reactors 704

18-2.1 Comparison of fluid- and solid-fuel reactors 704

18-2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of LMFR 705

18-3. Liquid Metal Fuel Reactor Types 706

18-4. LMFR Program 708

CHAPTER 19. REACTOR PHYSICS FOR LIQUID METAL REACTOR DESIGN 711

19-1. LMFR Parameters 711

19-1.1 Cross sections 711

19-1.2 Neutron age and diffusion length 713

19-1.3 Reactivity effects 713

19-1.4 Breeding 714

19-2. LMFR Statics . 715

19-2.1 Core . 715

19-2.2 Reflector 715

19-2.3 Critical mass . 717

19-2.4 Breeding 717

19-2.5 Control 718

19-2.6 Shielding 719

19-3. LMFR Kinetics 719

CHAPTER 20. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF LIQUID-METAL FUELS 722

2o-1. Core Fuel Composition 722

20-2. Solubilities in Bismuth 723

20-2.1 Uranium . 723

20-2.2 Thorium and plutonium 725

20-2.3 Fission-product solubility 725

20-2.4 Magnesium and zirconium . 725

20-2.5 Solubility of corrosion products in bismuth 726

20-2.6 Solubilities of combination of elements in bismuth 726

20-2.7 Salts . 730

20-3. Physical Properties of Solutions . 731

2o-3.1 Bismuth properties . 731

20-3.2 Solution properties . 731

20-3.3 Gas solubilities in bismuth . 731

20-4. Fuel Preparation . 731

20-5. Fuel Stability . 731

20-5.1 Losses of uranium from bismuth by reaction with container materials . 732

20-5.2 Reaction of fuel solution with air 732

20-6. Thorium Bismuthide Blanket Slurry 734

20-6.1 Status of development . 734

20-6.2 Chemical composition of thorium bismuthide 734

20-6.3 Crystal chemistry of thorium bismuthide – 734

20-6.4 Thorium-bismuth slurry preparation 736

20-6.5 Engineering studies of slurries . 738

20-7. Thorium Compound Slurries . 741

20-7.1 Thorium oxide 741

20-7.2 Other thorium compounds 741

CHAPTER 21. MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION-METALLURGY 743

21-1. LMFR Materials 743

21-1.1 Metals 743

21-1.2 Graphite 744

21-2. Steels 744

21-2.1 Static tests 744

21-2.2 Corrosion testing on steels 751

21-2.3 Thermal convection loop tests at BNL 751

21-2.4 High-velocity tests 759

21-2.5 Rapid oxidation of 2!3 Cr-13 Mo steel 767

21-2.6 Radiation effects on steels 768

21-3. Nonferrous Metals. 770

21-3.1 Beryllium 770

21-3.2 Tantalum 770

21-3.3 Molybdenum 771

21-4. Bearing Materials 771

21-5. Salt Corrosion . 773

21-6. Graphite 774

21-6.1 Mechanical properties 774

21-6.2 Graphite-to-metal seals . 775

21-6.3 Graphite reactions 775

21-6.4 Radiation effects on graphite 779

21-6.5 Bismuth permeation and diffusion into graphite. 782

CHAPTER 22. CHEMICAL PROCESSING 791

22-1. Introduction 791

22-2. Volatile Fission Product Removal 795

22-2.1 Xenon and iodine removal . 795

22-2.2 Xenon and iodine adsorption on graphite and steel . 796

22-2.3 Design of equipment for FPV removal 800

22-3. Fused Chloride Salt Process . 801

22-3.1 Equilibrium distribution 802

22-3.2 Pilot plant equilibrium experiments 809

22-3.3 Reaction rates 811

22-3.4 FPS removal process 812

22-3.5 Process control of fused chloride process 817

22-3.6 Processing to reduce radiation hazard 820

22-3.7 Pilot plant program for fused chloride process 820

22-3.8 Heat generation by fission products 820

22-4. Fluoride Volatility Process for Fission Products 821

22-5. Noble Fission Product Removal. 823

22-5.1 Characteristics of FPN poisoning . 823

22-5.2 Chemistry of NFPN removal by zinc drossing 824

22-5.3 FPN removal for the fused chloride process . 825

22-5.4 FPN removal process for the fluoride volatility processs 827

22-6. Blanket Chemical Processing. 828

22-7. Economics of Chemical Processing 829

CHAPTER 23. ENGINEERING DESIGN 832

23-1. Reactor Design 832

23-1.l Externally cooled LMFR 832

23-1.2 Internally cooled LMFR 832

23-1.3 Compact arrangements . 833

23-1.4 Open arrangements . 834

23-1.5 Containment and safety requirements 834

23-1.6 Design methods . 835

23-1.7 Maintenance and repair provisions 836

23-2. Heat Transfer . 836

23-2.1 Nuclear aspects of coolants. 837

23-2.2 Pumping-power requirements 840

23-2.3 Heat transfer for LMFR 841

23-2.4 Heat-exchanger design 843

23-3. Component Design 843

23-3.1 Pumps 843

23-3.2 Valves 848

23-3.3 Piping 849

23-3.4 Heating equipment 852

23-3.5 Insulation. 852

23-3.6 System preparation 852

23-3.7 Operation and handling 855

23-3.8 Instrumentation . 858

CHAPTER 24. LIQUID METAL FUEL REACTOR DESIGN STUDY 866

24-1. Comparison of Two-Fluid and Single-Fluid LMFR Designs 866

24-2. Two-Fluid Reactor Design 866

24-2.1 General description . 866

24-2.2 General specifications 867

24-2.3 End blanket effects . 869

24-2.4 Power level in the blanket 870

24-2.5 Selection of a reference design . 883

24-3. Systems Design 888

24-3.1 General 888

24-3.2 Plant arrangement 889

24-3.3 Primary system . 891

24-3.4 Intermediate system 892

24-3.5 Reactor heating and cooling system 893

24-3.6 Dump tank heating and cooling 894

24-3.7 Startup heating system . 894

24-3.8 Primary inert gas system 895

24-3.9 Intermediate inert gas system .895

24-3.10 Shield cooling .895

24-3.11 Reactor cell cooling .895

24-3.12 Capsule and reactor room cooling .896

24-3.13 Raw water system .896

24-3.14 Instrumentation and control 896

24-3.15 Maintenance .897

24-3.16 Chemical processing 897

24-3.17 Turbine generator plant 898

24-3.18 Off-gas system 899

24-4. Single-Fluid Reactor Design .900

24-4.1 General description .900

24-4.2 General specifications 900

24-4.3 Parametric study 901

24-4.4 Economic optimization .906

24-4.5 Selection of a reference design .911

24-5. Economics .920

24-5.1 Fixed charges on capital investment 920

24-5.2 Maintenance and operation 920

24-5.3 Fuel costs 921

24-5.4 Summary of energy costs .921

CHAPTER 25. ADDITIONAL LIQUID METAL REACTORS 930

25-1. Liquid Metal Fuel Gas-Cooled Reactor. 930

25-1.1 Introduction and objectives of concept 930

25-1.2 Reference design characteristics of an LMF-GCR 931

25-1.3 Fuel and fuel system 935

25-1.4 Reactor materials 938

25-1.5 Plant operation and maintenance . 938

25-1.6 Plant capital and power cost 939

25-2. Molten Plutonium Fuel Reactor 939

25-2.1 Introduction .939

25-2.2 Basic components 940

25-2.3 LAMPRE 942

25-3. Liquid Metal-Uranium Oxide Slurry Reactor 944

Index 947

 

 

http://egeneration.org/wp-content/Repository/Fluid_Fueled_Reactor_Book/FLUID%20FUEL%20REACTORS.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dec 4, 2014   2176   egeneration    Fluid Fueled Reactors Book
Total 0 Votes
0

Tell us how can we improve this post?

+ = Verify Human or Spambot ?

Add A Knowledge Base Question !

+ = Verify Human or Spambot ?

Add A Knowledge Base Question !

+ = Verify Human or Spambot ?